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Adams was a seaman on "Emily Morgan" who deserted on Kosrae when the ship visited that island in October 13, 1856.
Sources: Chase 1859
Thomas BadgerPohnpei, Pingelap, Mokil, Kosrae (1862-1870)
Thomas Badger was a trader who was living on Mokil in 1862, at the visit of the "Globe." In January 1869 Badger and his wife were moved from Pohnpei to Pingelap, where he was stationed as a trader for Ben Pease. Soon afterwards he was on Kosrae for a few months. He left there in January 1870 to serve as the trading master aboard the "Malolo." He performed this work until early June 1870, when he was discharged on Pohnpei.
Sources: Bridges 1870: entries for 7 Jan & 3 June 1870; Tinker 1863
Martin BarrettKosrae (1871)
Martin Barrett was an Ameriocan who was living on Kosrae in 1871. He signed aboard the brig "Leonora," captained by Bully Hayes, at Kosrae in November 1871.
Sources: Meade 1872
Louis BeckeKosrae, Majuro (1874, 1882)
Louis Becke, the author, may have been the supercargo on Bully Hayes' vessel "Leonora" in the early 1870s. He spent several months on Kosrae when the "Leonora" was wrecked there. He is said to have traded on Majuro in 1882, but stayed there for only one year.
Sources: Browning 1972: 37
Frank BensonKosrae (1870-1872)
Frank Benson was an American from Brooklyn who was brought to Kosrae on the "Malolo" in January 1870. He worked as a trading agent for Pease. In November 1871, he joined the "Leonora"
Sources: Meade 1872: 24 Feb 1872; Bridges 1870
Charles E BowkerPohnpei, Kosrae (1882-1891)
Charles C. Bowker was an American born in Memphis on November 1, 1861. He left the US for the Pacific in 1880 and soon afterwards began living in Micronesia. He was residing on Pohnpei from 1882. He became a good friend of the Protestant missionaries, representing the Protestant mission's claim against the Spanish governor in 1891. He was unsuccessful in this, however. Bowker, who was a carpenter by trade, reputedly built the mission residence at Mwot on Kosrae. He married a Kitti girl and later took her back to Fresno, California.
Sources: Pompey 1971: 364; Thurston 1885; PNA leg 13, exp 42; The Friend, Mar 1891, 25-6
John BrownKosrae, Ngatik, Mokil, Pohnpei, Chuuk (1852)
Captain John Brown was the master of "Genii" who left it at Kosrae in late 1852 "to try to form a settlement at the South Harbor." Driven off Kosrae by order of the paramount chief, Brown put to sea in a whaleboat with 27 people on board, "including a good lot of Strong's Island girls." He sailed to Ngatik, touching at Mokil on the way, arriving just before "Sarah Mooers" was wrecked there in December 1853. Brown was said to have killed one of his men on Ngatik. He left in a small boat, which he christened "Pretoria," with four of the stranded crew of "Sarah Mooers" to get assistance in Pohnpei, but they were carried off by a heavy wind and strong sea to an island south of Oroluk, perhaps Nama or Losap, where Brown was killed by the people there.
Sources: The Friend (Nov 1860), 82-84
John BrownKosrae (1853)
John Brown was living on Kosrae in July 1853. He left the island and shipped aboard the "Atkins Adams" in that month.
Sources: Fish 1854: 4 July 1853
Thomas BurnsKosrae (1860)
Thomas Burns was living on Kosrae in early 1860. He signed aboard the "Maria Teresa" as fourth mate when the ship visited Kosrae on February 15, 1860.
Sources: Coop 1860: 15 Feb 1860
W. E. ColeMajuro, Pohnpei, Kosrae (1877-1880)
W. E. Cole was born in 1848. He was a trader on Majuro in December 1877. He next showed up on Pohnpei for a time in early 1880, but he apparently lived on Kosrae at this time. He died of fever aboard "Mathilde" on his way back to Kosrae--his home in later years--on April 10, 1880. He left a "white" (although perhaps Samoan) wife and two small children. Cole's wife remained on Kosrae and was an agent for Capelle & Co. during the early 1880s.
Sources: Young 1881: 10 Apr 1889 and 12 Dec 1877
Edward Copen(?)Kosrae (1853)
Edward Copen deserted from the "Atkins Adams" at Kosrae on July 4, 1853.
Sources: Fish 1854: 4 July 1853
William D. CovertKosrae (1853-1857)
William Covert was a whaleman from Nantucket. He came to Kosrae in March 1853 when the ship "Paragon"
Sources: The Friend, Jan 1854, 5; Nautical Magazine, 27 (1858), 451-3
Thomas CoxKosrae (1833)
Thomas Cox was living on Kosrae in 1833. He was taken off the island by the "Nimrod" in October of that year. Cox was killed a month later when the "Nimrod" was attacked at Pingelap in November 1833.
Sources: Sydney Herald, 8 May 1834
Will DavisonKosrae (1832)
Will Davison, an Englishman, deserted from the whaleship "Australian" at Kosrae in April 1832.
Sources: Cattlin 1836: Apr 1832
Charles EllisKosrae (1832)
Charles Ellis, an Englishman, deserted from the "Australian" at Kosrae in April 1832.
Sources: Cattlin 1836: Apr 1832
Elsen was put on Kosrae by "Neva" in October 1871 where he lived until January 1872 collecting beche-de-mer.
Sources: Wawn 1874: 43-44
William FryerKosrae (1853)
William Fryer deserted "Atkins Adams" on Kosrae in July 4, 1853.
Sources: Fish 1854
Patrick GormanKosrae, Pohnpei, Ngatik (1834-1839)
Patrick Gorman was on Kosrae in 1834 at the visit of "Waverly" (before it was cut off). He claimed to be there when all three ships were taken.
Gorman was on Pohnpei in 1836 during "Falcon" disaster. He took part in the Ngatik massacre in July 1837, and remained on Ngatik with James Hall afterwards. He was established as "Isipaw of the Island" (paramount chief).
He presented a wild and savage picture to the crew of "Larne" in 1839.
Sources: Appleton 1834; Blake 1924: 664
William HarrisKosrae (1871-1872)
William Harris was a half-caste from Bonin Islands. He was shipped on "Leonora" with Hayes in August 1871. He came to Kosrae in May 1872 and residing there. He was one of the two foreigners living on the island. He was awaiting the return of Captain Bully Hayes when "Blanchard" arrived in 1872.
Could this be the William Harris on Pleasant Island in 1887 who wanted permission to settle on Kosrae. He was 75 years old at the time and forty five years on Pleasant Island.
Sources: Moss 1889: 136-145; Moore 1884; Simpson 1873: 193-194
August HartmannChuuk, Kosrae (1866-1882)
August Hartmann was a German trader who had lived for a time in Fiji and had married a Fijian woman. Hartmann came to Kosrae in 1866. He was the only white man on the island in 1871, according to W T Wawn. One of the missionary letters lauds him for the help he provided in installing the doors and windows in the new church on Kosrae. Hartmann was on Kosrae when Bully Hayes was shipwrecked there, but left soon afterwards for Chuuk. In 1874 Hartmann left Kosrae for Chuuk, probably by way of Pohnpei. He visited the Mortlocks in his own schooner but decided to settle on Fefan in Chuuk. He operated there as an independent trader, selling guns and other goods to the people in exchange for copra. Hartmann had four sons by his Fijian wife. In the intervillage warfare that was taking place intermittently at that time, Hartmann made enemies. One of them killed him in 1882 while Hartmann was in his boat picking up a pig. His family fled to Oroluk for a time to escape harm.
Sources: Wawn 1874: 45; Simpson 1873: 192; LeHunte 1883a: statement of Charles Ingalls; ABCFM: Snow to Clark, 3 Dec 1867
John HathawayKosrae (1853-1858)
John Hathaway born in Woonsocket, RI, arrived in Kosrae on October 20, 1853. He was still on Kosrae in March 1858, the only foreigner living on the island at that time.
Sources: HMCS: Snow to Clark, 22 Mar 1858; ABCFM: Snow to Anderson, 24 July 1857
Bully (William Henry) Hayes was born in Cleveland. He traded in the Marshalls and vicinity during the early 1870s with his rendezvous at Mili. He stationed traders at many of the islands in eastern Micronesia, cheating them when opportunity arose. Hayes soon moved into blackbirding, sailing from island to island recruiting plantation workers from the local population. In early 1874 Hayes was stranded on Kosrae for several months after his vessel "Leanora" was grounded there. For the remainder of the year he used Kosrae as base of his operations. Hayes was arrested in early 1875 when he turned up on Guam and was accused of smuggling prisoners off the island. After a few months in a Manila jail, Hayes returned to the US for a short time. On his return voyage, in March 1877, Hayes was killed by one of his crew in an argument aboard the "Lotus."
Sources: Moore 1872; Clune 1970; Hezel 1983: 233-237
Will HicksKosrae (1874)
Will Hicks was a Fijian half-caste, second mate of Bully Hayes' "Leonora." He came to Kosrae in March 1874, before the wreck of "Leonora" there. He remained on the island after the other crew members were taken off, by HMS "Rosario" in October 1874, to protect Hayes' goods there.
Sources: Clune 1970: 136
Samuel HolstedKosrae (1881-1883?)
Samuel Holsted was an American trading for Capelle & Co. on Kosrae in June 1881. By 1884 he was living on Nauru and trading for Henderson & MacFarlane.
Sources: Moore 1884; Maxwell 1881
Isaac B. HusseyKosrae (1850-1852)
Isaac B. Hussey was from Nantucket, the captain of a whaleship "Planter." He shot one of his crew in putting down a mutiny off Kosrae in December 1850. In anguish he went ashore on Kosrae and remained there for the next two years, leaving some time in 1852.
He returned to Nantucket and was made master of "William Penn" in July 1852. He was killed in a mutiny on this ship in November of that year. Hussey was 43 years old at his death.
Sources: Paddack 1893: 90-97, 138-141; The Friend, Apr 1853, 31; Jones 1861: 136-137; Whipple 1954: 147-149
William Johnson (Johnston)Kosrae (1853-1857)
William Johnson (Johnston) was a blacksmith from England who arrived on Kosrae on October 8, 1853, and lived there the next four years. The year before taking up residence on Kosrae, Johnson had sailed with Captain S.G. Moore, master of the "Morning Star." After his arrival at Kosrae, Johnson took a wife and joined in partnership with Covert, another white living on island.
Johnson and Covert and the two or three people from Rotumah they employed were engaged in hostilities with the chief of Kosrae in 1857. The hostilities were settled through mediation of the missionaries, and Johnson and Covert were reluctantly allowed to remain on the island.
Johnson finally left Kosrae in October 1857.
Sources: Nautical Magazine, 27 (1858), 451-3
David KirklandKosrae (1850-1858)
David Kirkland, a native of Baltimore, came to Kosrae in 1850 to trade with the people there. He served as a harbor pilot and compiled a shipping list for 1852. He died on March 15, 1858.
Sources: Wilson 1966; The Friend 1853; HMCS: Snow to Clark 22 Mar 1858
Francis C. LawtonKosrae (1853-1857)
Francis C. Lawton was a black from New Bedford, who may have once served as harpooner on a whaleship. He came to Kosrae on March 3, 1853. Lawton was on Kosrae in July 1857 when the fight between the foreigners and the paramount chief broke out. He was wounded by a musket ball and died of injuries on October 27, 1857.
Sources: The Friend, June 1855, 47; ABCFM: Snow to Anderson, 24 July 1857
Mac" was put on Kosrae by "Neva" in October 1871 where he lived until January 1872. He was collecting beche-de-mer.
Sources: Wawn 1874, 43-4
Sam MangerKosrae (1851)
Sam Manger was discharged in Kosrae by "Harvest in November 1851.
Sources: Almy 1854
John Victor MelanderKosrae (1880-1893)
John Victor Melander was a ship captain who was skipper of the "H L Tiernan," owned by Crawford & Co. Melander began to live on Kosrae in 1880. He married a Kosraean girl in 1890. In 1893 he was still living on Kosrae, operating a small ship "Tulenkan" and trading in copra. His brother-in-law ran the station on Lelu when he was at sea.
Henry Miller was discharged sick in Kosrae by the whaleship "Ocean" in October 1854.
Sources: ABCFM: Snow to Dole, July 1855; Fuller 1856: 35
Richard MillsKosrae, Pohnpei (1874)
Richard Mills was at Kosrae in 1874 at the arrival of the HMS "Rosario". He testified against Bully Hayes to the British naval authorities.
(This could possibly be the same Richard Mills who deserted at Pohnpei in 1843 from "Omega." He could have lived for a time on Pohnpei and then moved to Kosrae.)
Sources: FOCP 2591
Murray was an officer on the "Isaac Howland" who was discharged at Kosrae in October 1856.
Sources: Hobbs 1859
Nils NansenKosrae (1874)
Nils Nansen was the Danish mate of Hayes' "Leonora." He came to Kosrae in March 1874 before the wreck of the "Leonora" off that island. He remained on Kosrae to protect Hayes' holdings there, even after the other crewmen were taken off by HMS "Rosario" in October 1874.
Sources: Clune 1970: 136
Joe OrotongKosrae (1851)
Joe Orotong was an islander (perhaps from the island of that name in Melanesia) who was discharged from "Harvest" at Kosrae on November 17, 1851.
Sources: Almy 1854
Rufus PainterKosrae (1853)
Rufus Painter shipped aboard "Atkins Adams" on Kosrae in July 1853. He had been living there previously.
Sources: Fish 1854
John PhilipsKosrae (1860)
John Philips deserted from the "Superior" at Kosrae in Jannuary 1860.
Sources: Wood 1860
Michael Shea (or Shay)Kosrae (1853)
Michael Shea shipped aboard "Atkins Adams" on Kosrae in 1853. He had evidently been living there prior to this. Later he was put off the ship and left on Clarks Island.
Sources: Fish 1854
James B. SimonsKosrae (1856)
James B. Simons was an American serving as first mate on "Emily Morgan." He left the ship to live on Kosrae on September 30, 1856.
Sources: Chase 1859
Harry SkillingsKosrae, Satawan, Nauru, Pohnpei (1874-1893+)
Harry Skillings was an American who originally hailed from Maine. He arrived at Nauru in 1868 and had been living there for four years by the time of the HMS "Barrosa's" visit in 1872. By early 1874 Skillings had established himself on Kosrae and was on that island when Bully Hayes' ship "Leonora" was wrecked there. In 1877 he lived on Satawan in the Mortlocks for a few months. He was working with Jan Kubary exhuming bodies for examination. Skillings then went to Pohnpei for several years to work as a trader. In 1880 he was an agent for Brown & Co. of San Francisco serving as a trader. He was still on Pohnpei in 1887, when he signed a statement against the Protestant missionaries for the new Spanish government. By 1891 he was living on Kosrae, because in the typhoon of that year he is reported as allowing the missionaries to take refuge in his house. He was still living on Kosrae and trading in 1893, after which we hear nothing further about him.
Sources: Hambruch 1932: vol 1, 193; Westwood 1905: 112; Moore 1872: 27-8; AHN 5353, c1600; The Friend July 1891, 59; Goodenough 1875: encl 16; PNA leg 13, exp 42; Thurston 1883
Frederick SmithKosrae (1832)
Frederick Smith, an Englishman, deserted from "Australian" on Kosrae in April 1832.
Sources: Cattlin 1836
Edward StollandKosrae (1832)
Edward Stolland was an Englishman who deserted from "Australian" on Kosrae in April 1832.
Sources: Cattlin 1836
Andrew "Sturges"Kosrae (1854)
Andrew Sturges was an Englishman born in 1798. He came to the US while he was quite young. He was put ashore on Kosrae by the ship "Gay Head" in March 1854. He refused to give any information on his past life, or even his full name. One source gives his last name as Sturges, but this is uncertain. He died on Kosrae October 26, 1854, during the visit of the "Sea Shell."
Sources: The Friend, June 1855, 47; Wheldon 1856
Harry TerryYap, Mapia, Nauru, Banaba, Kosrae (1874-1882?)
Harry Terry was an Englishman from Worwich. He was said to have served as a sailor at HMS "Seringapatam". He left England in 1832, probably bound for Australia. He may have been sent to Australia as a convict. It is said that Terry, along with 15 other escape convicts from Australia arrived at Nauru on a whaleship in 1845. Many of Terry's companions met violent deaths in Nauru, and after 3 or 4 years, Terry and five others moved to Banaba. One source (Mallard) claims that they cut off the whaleship "Inga" of New Bedford and masaccred the crew in December 1852.
Terry was living on Kosrae in 1874 at the visit of the HMS "Rosario". He was married to a woman from Nauru. Terry may have spent some time in the Marshalls. He may be the "Harry" who was brought from the Marshalls to the Western Carolines aboard the "Agnes Donald" in March 1877. Terry was the resident trader on Mapia for Capelle & Co. in the late 1870s when O'Keefe met him and took him into his employment. Terry reported brought thirty Nauruans with him to Mapia. O'Keefe married Terry's daughter, Charlotte. Terry presumably continued trading as O'Keefe's agent in Mapia for years afterwards.
Sources: LeHunte 1883a: statement of John McGuiness; Young 1878: 19 Mar 1977; Bowles 1854: 22 Nov 1853; Goodenough 1875
W. T. WawnSatawan, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Jaluit (1871-1874)
W. T. Wawn was a Briton who spent four years in Micronesia as a trader before leaving the area. He went to Kosrae as an agent for Bully Hayes and Lechat in October 1871. He lived with two others, Mac and Elsen, collecting beche-de-mer. He left Kosrae in January 1872 for Pohnpei where he stayed until June of that year working and living with Joe Kehoe. He then moved to Satawan in the Mortlocks as a copra trader for Godeffroy & Son. He was put ashore by the "Iserbrook" in June 1872 and taken off by the "Susanne" in January 1873. Wawn spent another two months on Pohnpei between October and December 1973, and a few months on Jaluit between May and October 1874.
Wawn then went to Samoa where he took command of a copra schooner in 1875. Thereafter, he had command of other vessels, but never lived in Micronesia again. He died on July 5, 1901, in Sydney.
Sources: Wawn 1874
Wilson ?Kosrae (1858)
Wilson was first-mate of the "Morning Star," put off on Kosrae by Captain for drunkenness on September 1858.
Sources: Roberts 1865: entry for 4 Sept 1858
Jack WrightKosrae, Ebon (1878-1880)
Jack Wright, an American trader, was living on Kosrae for some time, but was evicted by the paramount chief in 1850. Apparently he returned to Kosrae much later, for he was on the island in 1878 as a trader for Hernsheim. He was accused by the missionaries of being "a miserable wretch, a drunkard, a liar, a thief and a sodomite." He was removed from Kosrae by Hernsheim and brought to Ebon in 1880. He later shot himself while on Ebon.
Sources: Hernsheim 1983: 66; Wilson 1850; ABCFM: Pease & Whitney to Clark, 26 Mar 1880
"Scandalous Jim"Pohnpei, Kosrae, Ebon (1853)
Scandalous Jim" deserted from a whaleship about 1853 and lived on Pohnpei. Later he went ot Kosrae and Ebon for a while, but returned to Pohnpei on "Pfeil" in 1864. He went to Ant Island as trader at that time. He was murdered by another trader named Bill in 1865.