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George BarrowsChuuk, Kapingamarangi (1880-1882)
George Barrows was an American who spent some time in Samoa, and from there went to the Kingsmill Islands (Kiribati) in 1878. After a couple of years there, he went to Kapingamarangi for a few weeks in 1879 or 1880 and then went on to Namoluk as a trader. He spent a year there (1880-1881) but his business did badly, so he moved back to Kapingamarangi to work as an independent trader. He brought two people from the Kingsmills with him. Just five months after his arrival, he was drowned by the people of that island, seemingly at the instigation of a trading rival, John Rees. The people also killed the two Kingsmill Islanders at Rees' urging.
Sources: LeHunte 1883a: investigation into death of Barrows, 16, 42-43, 48; Westwood 1905: 119-20, 135-9.
John BrownChuuk, Kosrae, Ngatik, Mokil, Pohnpei (1852)
Captain John Brown was the master of "Genii" who left it at Kosrae in late 1852 "to try to form a settlement at the South Harbor." Driven off Kosrae by order of the paramount chief, Brown put to sea in a whaleboat with 27 people on board, "including a good lot of Strong's Island girls." He sailed to Ngatik, touching at Mokil on the way, arriving just before "Sarah Mooers" was wrecked there in December 1853. Brown was said to have killed one of his men on Ngatik. He left in a small boat, which he christened "Pretoria," with four of the stranded crew of "Sarah Mooers" to get assistance in Pohnpei, but they were carried off by a heavy wind and strong sea to an island south of Oroluk, perhaps Nama or Losap, where Brown was killed by the people there.
Adolph Capelle was born in Hanover, Germany, in 1838. He first came to the Marshalls on the "Pfeil," owned by Hoffschlaeger & Stapenhorst. He arrived on Ebon in 1859 at the age of 21. Capelle lived on the island for a time trading in coconut oil. In 1864, with the newly arrived Anton DeBrum as a partner, Capelle established his own trading company, A, Capelle & Co.
He married a woman from Ebon, Sophia.
In 1873, after living on Ebon for more than a decade, Capelle moved to Jaluit, which was becoming the center of commerce. With their fleet of several small ships, Capelle & Co. expanded trading operations throughout the Marshalls and even into the eastern Carolines. Capelle was in Chuuk for several months in 1879 while setting buildings for a trade station there. Capelle & Co. sold their copra to one of the larger trade vessels belonging to one of the major firms in the Pacific. For a time, Godeffroy & Son was the firm they served. The company had a large store on Jaluit. Capelle was the consular agent for the US during the years he was based on Jaluit.
James Lyle Young, an agent for another firm in the Marshalls, was unsparing of Capelle in his diary. Young writes that Capelle, once a lay preacher for the church, has backslidden. He claims that Capelle has a tendency to see everything from one point of view--"dollars and cents."
Capelle and DeBrum purchased the island of Likiep for about twelve hundred dollars worth of trade in 1878. Thereafter Capelle and DeBrum used this as a copra plantation and a homestead. With their sons, Capelle and DeBrum began building small ships and started a variety of other businesses. Thereafter, Likiep became their base of operations.
Capelle died about 1911.
Sources: Young 1878: 8 July 1876; LeHunte 1883a: judicial proceedings, 2; Moore 1872: 16; Hezel 1983: 210-226, 252-254, 267-268, 302-304; ABCFM: R. Logan's letter of 1879.
James CurryChuuk, Pohnpei, Mortlocks, Nukuoro (1881-1887)
James Curry was an American (Irishman) trader who came to the Mortlocks as a trader in June 1881. He lived there for a year, until 1882, at which time he moved to Pohnpei to trade there.
He was in Nukuoro from June 1880 to June 1881. He was in Nukuoro when "Belle Brandon" put in during the summer of 1880. His son later lived in Samoa. He went to the Mortlocks the following year.
He was in Pohnpei from 1880-1883 and he was still there in 1887. He signed a statement against Rev Edward Doane.
Sources: LeHunte 1883a: statement of James Curry to the murder of George Barrows; Thurston 1885; Hambruch 1932: 193; Dana 1935: 100; PNA leg 13, exp 42
Thomas DavisPohnpei, Ulul, Pingelap (1880-1881)
Thomas Davis arrived on Pingelap, aboard the "Beatrice," as a trader for Capelle & Co. in November 1880. After six months there, he was brought to Ulul as a trader in May 1881 by "Caroline."
Sources: Young 1881
Jack Ehlers (Hallers)Chuuk, Pohnpei, Mortlocks (1880-?)
Jack Ehlers (now spelled Hallers) was a German trader who was living on Pohnpei in November 1880. He later moved to the Mortlocks where he traded for years before coming to Chuuk. He was living on Lukunor at the arrival of the German warship "Arkona" in 1885(?). He owned a boat and was doing copra trading. Eventually his family was established in Sapore, Fefan.
Dominique Etscheit was born in Ehrenbreitstein, Rhineland. Dominique's father was a lawyer who worked for a title, landed family. He left Germany in 1871 for England to learn English. Sailing by way of Australia, he first arrived in the Pacific in 1884 to work as a trader. He lived in the Marshalls at first, supporting himself by trade. There he took a Marshallese woman as his wife, but she died in Manila not long afterwards. In 1886, according to a German deed, he bought Ulul Island in Chuuk and attempted to set up a plantation there. When this failed, he moved to Pohnpei to settle there permanently. By this time he had married a Belgian woman by the name of Florence Caymont, who became the manager of his estate when he died. In 1899 Etscheit purchased Jan Kubary's landholdings on Pohnpei, a few years after the death of the latter. Two of his children, Leo and Carlos, adopted their mother's Belgian citzenship and remained on Pohnpei until their death, while another son, Robert, and a daughter, Ella, returned to Europe.
Sources: AHN 5863, ff 238-239; letter of Alan Hughes, 22 Nov 1993; interview with Carlos Etscheit, 16 Nov. 1981
William FloydChuuk (Murilo) (1827-1828)
William Floyd was a British seaman who was left on Murilo, an atoll north of Chuuk, by the whaleship "Prudent" in the summer 1827. He was taken off the island after eighteen months by the Russian naval captain Lutke aboard the "Senyavin" in december 1828. Floyd learned some of the language and was used as an informant by the Russians.
Charles Gierow (originally spelled Karl Gerau) was a German who deserted the German army about 1876. He lived for a time in Samoa before coming to the Mortlocks. His arrival in the Mortlocks is not dated, but it probably occurred not long after 1876. He moved to Chuuk about 1888 and traded there for one of the large firms. About 1896 he "got religion"
Sources: ABCFM: ? to Dr. Clark, 12 June 1886, Snelling to Judson Smith, 18 June 1896; Kramer 1932: 16-18
August HartmannChuuk, Kosrae (1866-1882)
August Hartmann was a German trader who had lived for a time in Fiji and had married a Fijian woman. Hartmann came to Kosrae in 1866. He was the only white man on the island in 1871, according to W T Wawn. One of the missionary letters lauds him for the help he provided in installing the doors and windows in the new church on Kosrae. Hartmann was on Kosrae when Bully Hayes was shipwrecked there, but left soon afterwards for Chuuk. In 1874 Hartmann left Kosrae for Chuuk, probably by way of Pohnpei. He visited the Mortlocks in his own schooner but decided to settle on Fefan in Chuuk. He operated there as an independent trader, selling guns and other goods to the people in exchange for copra. Hartmann had four sons by his Fijian wife. In the intervillage warfare that was taking place intermittently at that time, Hartmann made enemies. One of them killed him in 1882 while Hartmann was in his boat picking up a pig. His family fled to Oroluk for a time to escape harm.
Sources: Wawn 1874: 45; Simpson 1873: 192; LeHunte 1883a: statement of Charles Ingalls; ABCFM: Snow to Clark, 3 Dec 1867
Charles IronsChuuk, Puluwat (1880-1920+)
Charles Irons was British but had been living in Australia. He came to Puluwat to trade about 1880. Irons lived on Puluwat for years; he was still there in 1905, according to Hans Damm, and was described as "having gone thoroughly native." Irons later moved to Chuuk, where he worked on Toloas (or possibly Eten) for the Jaluit Company. He was certainly in Chuuk by 1896, because a mission letter reports that Irons' sick daughter was healed by a Protestant missionary in that year. Irons had married a woman from Udot upon coming to the lagoon. Irons later started a business of his own. When Irons' large warehouse caught fire, the German government helped him get started again. He died in the 1920s.
Sources: Damm 1935: 3; ABCFM: letter of ?, 17 June 1896
Jacob ?Namoluk (1881)
An unnamed German trader, completely paralyzed, was living on Satawan in 1878, according to Westwood.
Sources: Westwood 1905: 131
Joseph Kehoe (Keough)Pohnpei, Satawan (1858-1896+)
Joseph Kehoe (perhaps originally Keough) was born in New York City on December 5, 1826. He left the US in 1855 and arrived on Pohnpei, probably after some wandering through the Pacific, in 1858. He settled in Madolenihmw, married a local woman, and piloted ships for many years. He also sold beche-de-mer and other produce to traders. In 1868, he sold a load of beche-de-mer to the "Malolo." He left Pohnpei briefly in 1880 to trade on Satawan for a few months, but he was "found in destitution" by the missionary brig "Morning Star" and was brought back on Pohnpei that same year. Kehoe helped FW Christian with his researches at Nan Madol. In 1896 Kehoe was still on Pohnpei after almost forty years.
Sources: Maxwell 1881; Bridges 1870; PNA leg 13, esp 42; Wood 1875: 169; Wawn 1874: 52; ABCFM: Sturges 17 May 1880 & Logan 31 Mar 1880
John S. KubaryPohnpei, Palau, Yap, Nukuoro, Mortlocks, Chuuk, Jaluit (1869-1896)
John S. Kubary was a native of Poland, but a naturalized British citizen. Since 1869 he travelled in the Pacific as a naturalist for Godeffroy Co. He lived in Samoa for six months at the end of 1869, then travelled to Marshalls on "Sofia" in April 1870. In August 1870, Kubary went to Yap, where he spent five months. In January 1871, he went to Palau, staying there for more than two years. In May 1873, he sailed on "Iserbrook" visiting Ulithi, Ngulu, Woleai, Nukuoro, and Mortlocks, arriving in Pohnpei in August 1873. He left Pohnpei a year later in August 1874 on "Alfred" which went aground and went down with many of his specimens. Kubary spent some weeks on Jaluit before sailing for New Zealand in December 1874. After spending some months in Europe during 1875, he sailed back to the Pacific. In late 1875, he stopped at Pohnpei, built a house and established a plantation.
In February 1877 he set out for the Mortlocks where he spent a few months--until the end of May. In May 1878, a year later he left for Chuuk and remained there until August 1879.
He returned to Pohnpei and married Anna Yellot. When the company crashed, Godeffroy & Sons released Kubary, who turned to his plantation. His plantation was destroyed by a typhoon in 1882 and he worked in Tokyo for a few months. He returned to Pohnpei, visited Palau again in early 1883 and remained in the western Carolines until 1885. In September 1885 Kubary went aboard "Albatross" to New Britain and New Guinea. He remained at work in Melanesia until 1892 when he went to Germany for a few months.
He returned to New Guinea and worked there until 1895 when he settled again in Pohnpei. He found that his plantation had been devastated in the uprising against the Spanish. In October 1896, a few months after his return, Kubary committed suicide on the grave of his only son. A daughter was sent to Singapore to be educated in a convent school and later became a nun.
McIntyre was a Scotsman from Tasmania who traded on Weno, Chuuk, from January to April 1886. He died of consumption in April.
Sources: ABCFM: Robert Logan, 20 Mar 1886
Koben MoriChuuk (1898-1945)
Born in 1869, Mori was the son of a samurai from Shikoku. He came to Chuuk on a Japanese trade ship in 1892 at the age of 22. He set up a trade station on Weno and married the young daughter of a local chief. He and his wife Isa had twelve children. He returned to Japan briefly after an accident in which he lost several fingers, but was back in Chuuk by the end of the same year. At the onset of German rule over the islands, Mori was the single Japanese trader in Chuuk who escaped expulsion for trading in guns and liquor. He worked for Jaluit Company for a time, setting up a trade station in Tol. He remained a forceful presence in Chuuk until his death in 1945.
Sources: Peattie 1988: 26-33
John MilletChuuk, Pohnpei (1887)
John Millet was an American who was living on Pohnpei for some time during the 1880s. He came to Nama to work as a trader in 1887.
Sources: Logan 1888: 27
Frederick NarruhnKiribati, Pohnpei, Chuuk (1884-1898)
Frederick Narruhn was a German, born in Nuremberg but raised in Hamburg after his father died. After finishing school in Germany, he reportedly moved to Texas to complete his education. After a stint in the US Navy during which he received his master's license, Narruhn headed for the Pacific. In his own schooner "Neptune" he sailed to Samoa in his late 20s. There he met an young Australian woman, Lucy, whom he later married. For a time he roamed the Pacific, visiting Fiji, Tarawa, and the Ellice Islands. Around 1882 he came to Pohnpei for the first time, bought some land in Kiti, and set up a store. Pohnpei was to be his permanent home, even after he expanded his operations to Chuuk. He first visited Chuuk in his schooner in 1884, set up a trade station, and visited off and on during the next several years. During his time in Chuuk he provided much assistance to Robert Logan and the Protestant missionaries. On Pohnpei he expanded his business from Kiti to Kolonia and established two stores there. He lived on Pohnpei for 16 years in all, dying on Pohnpei in 1898.
Sources: Willie Narruhn, Reminiscences; Farrell 1928: 341-342; ABCFM: Robert Logan, 20 Mar 1886; PNA leg 12, exp 83
Pierre NedelicPohnpei, Nama, Etal, Chuuk (c1890-1920+)
Pierre Nedelic was a Frenchman who, according to family tradition, was put off a whaleship on Pohnpei for stealing a tent from the ship and giving it to a girlfriend. The date of his arrival on Pohnpei is uncertain, but most likely it would have been in the early 1890s. While on Pohnpei, Nedelic was hired by Narruhn to work on his schooner and help him in his trade business. Nedelic later bought his own schooner, though, and went to the Mortlocks to trade about 1900. He resided on Nama for a short time and then moved to Etal. He married a woman from Etal and moved to Chuuk about 1901 or 1902. He bought land on Fefan and spent a few years there, but finally moved to Uman to reside. He traded for Nanyo Boeki during the years of Japanese mandate. He is said to have died in the late 1920s.
Sources: Willie Narruhn, Reminiscences; Brown n.d.: vol 1, 130; Deutsche Konialamt 1901: 634-635
O'Brien was an Irishman who stowed away on Duperrey's "Coquille" during its stop at New Zealand. He traveled with the French naval party to Chuuk, where he and another sailor was put ashore in June 1824. Both left Chuuk and sailed to Guam a year later, in April 1825.
Powers, an Irishman, was brought to Puluwat as a trader by the "Shanghai" in 1881. He arrived with Manuel Silva, who was sent to Ulul to trade. Powers was killed by the people of Puluwat within a year.
Sources: Westwood 1905: 125-6, 129-30
John ReesKapingamarangi, Chuuk, Faraulep, Nukuoro, Marshalls, Yap (1877-1883?)
John Rees, a Welshman, first came to Micronesia in 1877 as mate of the "Tetuila." He had been in Samoa previous to this. He may have stayed with the ship in the Marshalls for the first year, but in 1878 he moved to Pohnpei as an agent for Capelle & Co. He stayed on Pohnpei for an indefinite period of time before moving to Nukuoro in June 1880. There he found a wife, Nuli, whom he took with him to his other posts. He may have also visited Kapingamarangi at this time. He supposedly also spent two months in Yap--September to November 1880. In June 1881, he moved to the Mortlocks to work as an agent at the same time that George Barrows was trading on Namoluk. In 1882 Rees left the Mortlocks and returned to Kapingamarangi. While there he reputedly had his trading rival, George Barrows, drowned by the local people and Barrows' two Gilbertese helpers killed. Rees left Kapingamarangi for Pohnpei on the "Beatrice" and then shipped aboard the "Caroline" as its mate. He was wrecked in Faroulep in 1883 and forced to remain on that island for a time. There is no word of him after that.
Rees was described as "a middle-aged man, nostrils affected by syphilitic cancer, tattoed with an elephant dancing girl, has the appearance of a heavy drinker--swaggering gait--wear rings--ears pierced...usually dressed in shirt, trousers and monkey jacket--slouched straw hat without ribbon--shirt open at the breast." [Deryck Scarr, "Fragments of Empire," 118]
Sources: LeHunte 1883a: 28, 55, statement of James Curry, statement of Ilaisa Mativa; Westwood 1905: 135-139
Charles RobertsMili, Majuro, Satawan, Pohnpei, Mokil (1871-1884)
Charles Roberts was born in Exeter, England. He was the first mate of the "Neva" in 1870-1871 as the ship made trading stops in the Marshalls. In November 1871 he was put ashore on Mili as an agent for Bully Hayes. He then moved to Majuro, probably working as an agent there, and he met the "Neva" at Majuro in April 1872. Roberts moved to Pohnpei about 1873 and began working there as an agent for Capelle & Co. He spent the next several years working on Pohnpei, but with shorter periods of time on some of the outliers in the area. In January 1880, for instance, he was living on Mokil while trading, but by November of that year he had returned to Pohnpei. Roberts was married to John Rees' former wife, a half-caste Samoan by the name of Elaisa Mativa. He moved to Satawan to trade in May 1884, but he only remained there for six months.
Sources: Young 1881: Jan & Nov 1880; Pitman 1872: Apr 1872 ; Browning 1972: 1, 35. LeHunte 1883a: 16, 42; Thurston 1885
Scott was a seaman aboard Duperrey's "Coquille" who was discharged at Chuuk in June 1824 together with another sailor, O'Brien. Scott may have been a freed convict taken aboard at Port Jackson. In April 1825 both men left Chuuk and sailed to Guam.
Shirai came to Chuuk about 1891 with the early Japanese traders. He had fought in the wars of the Mejii Restoration while still in Japan. He took up residence in Weno, married and raised a large family, the descendants of which still bear his name.
Sources: Hezel 1995:77
John SilvaPuluwat, Pohnpei (1868-1887)
John Silva was a Portuguese black who was installed as a trader on Pohnpei by Ben Pease in 1868. He was known as "John the Portugee" and should be distinguished from Joseph Silva, who was trading in Yap about 1880, and from Manuel Silva, who was trading in Ulul around the same time when he was slain there. John Silva was working at Rohn Kiti in January 1870. He was brought back to Pohnpei from a trip to other islands in January 1880, and was still living on Pohnpei in 1887.
Sources: Young 1881: 6 Jan 1880; Restieaux 1869; Bridges 1870; PNA leg 13, exp 42
Manuel SilvaUlul (1881)
Manuel Silva was Portuguese, perhaps from the Azores, who was brought to Ulul as a trader by the "Shanghai" in 1881. Silva came out with Powers, who went to Puluwat as a resident trader at the same time. Silva and Powers were both killed a few months after their arrival at the instigation of the people of Puluwat.
Was this the same person as the John Silva who was on Pohnpei trading for Ben Pease from 1868 into the 1870s?
Sources: Westwood 1905: 125-126, 129-130; LeHunte 1883a: statement of Charles Ingalls
Harry SkillingsKosrae, Satawan, Nauru, Pohnpei (1874-1893+)
Harry Skillings was an American who originally hailed from Maine. He arrived at Nauru in 1868 and had been living there for four years by the time of the HMS "Barrosa's" visit in 1872. By early 1874 Skillings had established himself on Kosrae and was on that island when Bully Hayes' ship "Leonora" was wrecked there. In 1877 he lived on Satawan in the Mortlocks for a few months. He was working with Jan Kubary exhuming bodies for examination. Skillings then went to Pohnpei for several years to work as a trader. In 1880 he was an agent for Brown & Co. of San Francisco serving as a trader. He was still on Pohnpei in 1887, when he signed a statement against the Protestant missionaries for the new Spanish government. By 1891 he was living on Kosrae, because in the typhoon of that year he is reported as allowing the missionaries to take refuge in his house. He was still living on Kosrae and trading in 1893, after which we hear nothing further about him.
Sources: Hambruch 1932: vol 1, 193; Westwood 1905: 112; Moore 1872: 27-8; AHN 5353, c1600; The Friend July 1891, 59; Goodenough 1875: encl 16; PNA leg 13, exp 42; Thurston 1883
Sundberg was Swedish born but an American citizen who came to Chuuk in July 1885 on the "Mangaravienne". He was living on Fefan as an agent for Narruhn until 1886.
Sources: ABCFM: Robert Logan, 13 Nov 1884.
Edward VowellJaluit, Pohnpei, Ulul (1878-1882)
Edward Vowell, an Englishman, served as a crew member on the trading ship "Lotus" in late 1877. He worked as an employee of Capelle & Co. on Jaluit from the beginning of 1878 through the end of 1880. Savaii, a native of Nukufitau, was with him during this period. He then came to Pohnpei in early 1881, but he does not seem to have stayed there long. He soon moved to Ulul with his Gilbertese wife. In June 1883 he was killed by two men from Pisarach living there. One story is that he was shot for his trade goods. Another version is that he was killed in a quarrel that broke out over his wife.
Vowell was alleged to be an assumed name. He was described as "a quiet sober man, and his erect carriage and bearing generally led everyone who met him to suppose he was an ex-military officer."
Sources: Young 1878: 17 Dec 1877, 4 Jan 1878; LeHunte 1883a: statement of Charles Ingalls to the murder of George Barrows; Moore 1884
W. T. WawnSatawan, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Jaluit (1871-1874)
W. T. Wawn was a Briton who spent four years in Micronesia as a trader before leaving the area. He went to Kosrae as an agent for Bully Hayes and Lechat in October 1871. He lived with two others, Mac and Elsen, collecting beche-de-mer. He left Kosrae in January 1872 for Pohnpei where he stayed until June of that year working and living with Joe Kehoe. He then moved to Satawan in the Mortlocks as a copra trader for Godeffroy & Son. He was put ashore by the "Iserbrook" in June 1872 and taken off by the "Susanne" in January 1873. Wawn spent another two months on Pohnpei between October and December 1973, and a few months on Jaluit between May and October 1874.
Wawn then went to Samoa where he took command of a copra schooner in 1875. Thereafter, he had command of other vessels, but never lived in Micronesia again. He died on July 5, 1901, in Sydney.
Sources: Wawn 1874
John WestwoodLukunor, Pohnpei (1877-1887)
John Westwood was a British trader for an Auckland firm who lived on Lukunor in the Mortlocks from 1877 to 1883. He was brought to Lukunor on the "Vision" in March 1877 as an agent for Thomas Farrell's company. Westwood left the island in January 1883 on the "Mazeppa." Westwood moved to Pohnpei, where he was residing during the visit of the HMS "Espiegle" in 1883. He tried to get possession of his daughter, who remained on Lukunor in possession of his wife's family but was unable to do so. He left Pohnpei for good in 1887, when he boarded a ship bound for Manila.
Sources: Westwood 1905: 88ff; Young 1878: 19 Mar 1877; LeHunte 1883a: 27; PNA leg 13, exp 42
Williams was an English trader who was said to have come to the Mortlocks "many years before 1881." According to Westwood, Williams "painted his body yellow and took on native ways."
Sources: Westwood 1905: 126
Henry WorthPohnpei, Satawan, Chuuk, Nukuoro (1871-1893)
Henry Worth was born in New Bedford, MA, on June 18, 1846. While serving as a harpooner on a whaleship, Worth deserted on Pohnpei in 1871. For a time he collected beche-de-mer and sold it to traders to support himself. For a few years (1877-1879) he was a copra trader on Nukuoro. When he returned to Pohnpei, he married a local woman. In 1880 Worth left Pohnpei to live on Satawan for a year as a trader, but he was unsuccessful and returned to Pohnpei in June 1881 on the "Caroline." Having undergone a conversion experience and been baptized on Satawan, Worth decided to assist the Protestant church upon his return to Pohnpei. He worked with Rev. Edward Doane at the mission school in Ohwa for the next four years. Worth and his wife returned to Chuuk in 1885 to work for the church. In 1890 Worth was the master of the mission ship "Robert W. Logan." He was dismissed from church work in 1893 for "immoral conduct" and died shortly after this. (One author claims that he left Micronesia and worked his way around the world, dying in an old sailors' home in Liverpool, England.)
Sources: The Friend, May 1888, 33-36 & June 1893, 47; ABCFM: R E Logan, 26 Apr 1880 & 13 Oct 1884; Whipple 1954: 193-203, 297-8
An unnamed young American lived on Udot for some months in 1890 until he was forced to flee for his life.
Sources: ABCFM: Mrs. Logan, 22 Mar 1890
An unnamed German trader was left on Puluwat for nine months some time after 1881, according to Westwood. The German trader is reported to have left in fear of his life.
Sources: Westwood 1905: 130
An unnamed white trader was reported to be living on Satawan at the time of the first arrival of the "Morning Star" in 1874.
Sources: Kramer 1932: 13
An unnamed German trader, completely paralyzed, was living on Satawan in 1878, according to Westwood.